Parkinson’s disease is the name of a slowly developing pathology of the central nervous system. The main symptoms of the disease include motor disorders, muscle stiffness (increased tone), tremor at rest. Carriers of the pathology experience not only vegetative, but also affective disorders. Neurologists diagnose true parkinsonism – Parkinson’s disease – and parkinsonism syndrome in patients. The latter becomes a complication of other neurological diseases: brain malignancies, strokes, encephalitis, etc.
Parkinson’s disease diagnoses
For the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease are used in several ways:
- Visual examination.
- Functional diagnostics: the method of clinico – accelerometric differential diagnostics of tremor (tremor), ultrasonic transcranial sonography (TX), tomography.
- Laboratory tests (blood, urine).
A number of these methods of diagnostics are basic, priority, a number – auxiliary specifying.
Primarily, a patient with Parkinson’s disease suspicion is shown visual examination by a neurologist, laboratory tests, clinico-accelerometric differential diagnostics of tremor and ultrasonic transcranial sonography.
During the visual examination, the character of the shaking fingers is necessarily studied. If this is really Parkinson’s disease, then most often triggered by the rule of “rolling pills”: the patient feels that the fingers are not just shaking, and between them rolls a certain object like a pill. In addition, the tremor is asymmetrical. It is more pronounced on one hand and less pronounced on the other. Very often at the initial stage by the nature of tremor can be determined: it is necessary to continue to diagnose Parkinson’s disease, or the patient – Wilson-Konovalov disease, accompanied by a metabolic disorder. A detailed gait analysis is also performed. The doctor asks the patient to walk around the office and observe the speed. In the risk group – patients who have a clear acceleration when moving forward. Thus, patients unwittingly try to compensate for the difficulties in maintaining balance.
The most effective are ultrasonic transcranial sonography and clinical-accelerometric differential diagnostics. They help not only to confirm or deny the presence of the disease, but also to choose the right treatment, including the dosage. Ultrasonic transcranial sonography helps to determine what area of the nerve cells of the brain is affected and even the predisposition to Parkinson’s disease, and accelerometric differential diagnosis is informative for the analysis of the dynamics of tremor. Tomography in the diagnosis is auxiliary. It is shown not to reveal the nature of Parkinson’s disease, but to distinguish it from other pathologies and (or) to detect neoplasms and degenerative pathologies in the patient.
Electroencephalography, Doppler, ultrasound examination of brachycephalous arteries may also be prescribed according to indications. The data obtained from these examinations are also clarifying.