Life after a heart attack

Myocardial infarction is an acute violation of the blood supply to the heart muscle, followed by the death of the affected area. According to statistics, the incidence of myocardial infarction in Russia is two cases per thousand people aged 40-49 years, six – at 50-59 years old and already 17 – at 60-65 years old. Elena Kosmacheva, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Chief Cardiologist of the Krasnodar Territory, Head of the Department of Therapy of the Kuban State Medical University, Deputy Chief Physician for the Medical Department of Research Institute-KKB No. 1, talks about the treatment and rehabilitation of patients after a heart attack.

– What should a person who has suffered a myocardial infarction need to do? How to avoid relapse? Maybe

– First, lead a healthy lifestyle and get rid of bad habits. For example, smoking affects the vascular wall, regardless of whether there are atherosclerotic plaques in the patient’s heart or not. We are also against large doses of alcohol. A patient with coronary heart disease is not allowed to take more than 10 grams of alcohol at one time, in terms of pure alcohol, if it is a man. And even less for women.

Secondly, it is necessary to compensate for all indicators that can cause the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. In patients with high sugar, we achieve normal levels of glucose and glycated hemoglobin. If the patient has an elevated sugar level, then we offer diet, drug correction or, if necessary, insulin therapy.

Thirdly, to correct lipid metabolism. It is necessary to achieve a level of low density lipoprotein less than 1.8 millimoles per liter. To do this, a therapist or cardiologist prescribes drugs to lower cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein levels and a diet.

Fourth, we try to normalize the patient’s blood pressure. Therefore, he must take antihypertensive drugs and in case of an increase, immediately consult a doctor.

– What should be the diet after a heart attack?

– We ask our patients to do two fish days a week. We are also introducing restrictions on the amount of food intake, because being overweight adversely affects the future prognosis and increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of course, it is necessary to limit cholesterol from food intake (all foods containing animal fats).

– What else should be changed in the lifestyle besides the diet?

– Physical activity is required. Already in the hospital, a set of physical exercises for the patient is selected. In a cardiological sanatorium, during rehabilitation, the patient walks on terrainks, performs exercises to maintain a good level of blood pressure. After being discharged for outpatient treatment, the patient attends exercise therapy classes, and then must do the exercises at home on his own. To summarize, the patient needs to reconsider his lifestyle and remove all harmful factors that the doctor will tell him about in detail. If the patient does not change his lifestyle and does not follow the doctor’s recommendations, a relapse is inevitable.

Medical technology concept.

– It turns out that health is largely in the hands of the patient himself?

– Undoubtedly. In all preventive areas, it is said that only 50% of the work to increase the patient’s life expectancy falls on medical procedures. The other 50% comes from changing the lifestyle itself. This is the patient’s work on himself. True, not all patients in our country think about their own contribution to their health. In many countries, this process is tightly regulated. If a person does not

follows the advice of a doctor, then health insurance is much more expensive for him than for those who follow the recommendations. It turns out that people pay for the wrong way of life from their own wallet.

– If the patient observes all the recommendations of the doctors, how much on average can his life expectancy increase?

– If a person stops smoking, then his risk of heart attack, even in the first six months, decreases several times. If a patient regularly takes drugs, for example, lowering cholesterol levels, then this increases his life expectancy by several years. Each person should understand that if he does everything carefully, then life expectancy will increase not by 1-2 years, but by tens of years.

– The Ministry of Health has launched a prophylactic medical examination program, but experts believe that the Russians will not voluntarily undergo it. What do you think about this?

– Psychology is widespread in our country – as much as God gave, I will live as much. Of course, each person controls his own life, but the medical community and the state need to convey to the Russians that it is necessary to take care of their health. At least in order not to live the last years of life with heart failure after a massive heart attack or with severe movement disorders after a stroke.