Parkinson's disease (also parkinsonism, fluttering paralysis) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by shivering limbs and head (tremor), slow motion and impoverished mimics (hypokinesia), general stiffness of the body (rigidity).
According to extant sources, Parkinson's disease was known in ancient times. The full scientific description was first provided by the English physician James Parkinson in 1817, whose name was given to the disease, according to Dr. Denis Slinkin.
Dr. Denis Slinkin claims that shaking first appears on the right side of the body and gradually switches to the left side. Tremor in Parkinson's disease is quite specific: finger movements resemble "rolling balls" or "coin count".
It is especially noticeable when the patient is awake, and can disappear in his sleep. As Parkinson's disease progresses, people suffering from Parkinson's disease acquire a specific 'petitioner' pose: the head is bent down, the arms are bent in the elbows and away from the body, the legs are bent in the knees, and the torso is tilted slightly forward. The patients are characterized by a shuffling gait, perhaps a long stomping in place before moving forward.
Parkinsonism develops due to mass neuronal death in "black matter", which is in the middle brain.
These cells produce the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is vital for intercellular communication. Lack of dopamine causes an imbalance between different brain systems.
According to the data available to date, in 20% of cases Parkinson's disease is due to genetic predisposition, the remaining 80% is due to environmental factors. Parkinsonism can be triggered by neurotoxins used in agriculture, heavy metals (manganese, lead, iron) or gases (carbon monoxide), says Dr. Denis Slinkin.