Lack of vitality, unwillingness to get out of bed, bad moods for a long time and even unwillingness to live are all signs of depression. A depressed state has a bad effect on a person’s health and general well-being. That is why it is so important to get medical help from a specialist in time. It is quite possible that he will prescribe this medication:

How to determine the presence of depression?
Pathology can appear after experiencing stressful situations. If the disorder is absent, after the resolution of the problem, good mood returns to the person. But when the cause is eliminated, and the person does not leave apathy, depression and loss of strength, it is necessary to seek help from a specialist. The ability to work may also decrease.

It is possible to identify the presence of depression on your own, but self-treatment even at an early stage of development is not worth it. This should be done by a doctor, since self-treatment can only make things worse.

Depression in women is often postpartum, as their life changes dramatically, and sleepless nights add to fatigue. Hence, breakdowns and apathy appear.

When the pathology is in its neglected form, the person has the following symptoms of depression – not only bad moods and powerlessness, but also persistent disorders of the nervous system. There are also symptoms such as: a significant decrease in self-esteem, disadaptation in society, despondency and loss of interest in any events.

On the physiological level, appetite changes, intimate needs and energy decrease, sleep and intestinal functions are impaired (constipation, weakness, fatigue during physical as well as intellectual exertion are observed), body pain (heart, muscle, stomach area).

Signs of depression such as loss of interest in other people, tendency to frequent seclusion, refusal of entertainment, use of alcohol and psychotropic substances are noticeable in the patient.

The mental signs of depression include difficulty concentrating, concentrating, making decisions, slow thinking, a pessimistic view of the future with an absence of perspective and thoughts about the meaninglessness of their existence, suicide attempts, because of their uselessness, helplessness, insignificance.

Causes of depression
The appearance of the disorder is not influenced by age category or social affiliation. Most often, depression appears against the backdrop of stressful negative situations, with constant failures – then the person falls into despair from the inability to somehow influence the course of events.

But in addition to the social factor, severe psychological trauma can lead to the development of depression, such as the collapse of the family, the death of a loved one, a serious illness that affects not only the patient himself, but also his relatives. In this case, depression is referred to as reactive depression.

The likelihood of depression increases with changes in hormonal background: during adolescence, after childbirth, at the onset of menopause, as well as in old age. Can be reflected in the emotional and physical level.

Another factor is brain lesions and somatic pathologies. Often depression affects patients who have had a stroke, suffer from chronic lack of blood circulation in the brain, after a brain injury.

Causes of depression can manifest itself as a result of the side effects of medications (benzodiazepines, corticosteroids). Often this condition disappears on its own after withdrawal of the medication taken.

The most common food-borne helminths

There are a huge variety of parasites that can exist in a person’s internal organs or inhabit their skin and hair. These parasites may include helminths for which this medicine helps:

Helminths is the common name for parasitic worms that live in the human body, other animals or plants.

According to statistics from the World Health Organization, more than 4.5 billion people in the world are infected with various parasites, many of which are helminths.

Official reporting statistics of the Russian Federation show an increase in the incidence of the main helminth infections in some territories of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, in particular: echinococcosis, opisthorchiasis. In a number of territories, the morbidity rates for enterobiasis and ascariasis remain high.

Let’s try to figure out which helminths, transmitted by food, occur more often in our country, and how to minimize the risk of getting infected with them.

Catflies (catflies, liverworts, lanceolate, etc.)

Humans may be parasitized by more than 40 species of catflies, and the localization of helminths in the body may be very different – liver, lungs, blood vessels.


The liver sucker is the causative agent of fascioliasis and affects the liver and gallbladder.

On the territory of Russia it is found in the Tyumen, Irkutsk, Kaliningrad, Kirov Regions, and the Republic of Sakha.

A man is infected when he eats vegetable crops that were irrigated with water from open reservoirs.

Patients develop general symptoms of intoxication – weakness, decreased appetite, nausea, headaches. Allergic reactions in the form of skin itching or urticaria, asthmatic attacks may occur.

An increase in the size of the parasite can lead to a violation of the flow of bile into the duodenum and the appearance of signs of mechanical jaundice. Patients have pain in the right subcostal area. Further jaundice of the skin may be observed and discoloration of the feces may be observed.


The causative agent of opistorchosis is the catflies.

The disease is characterized by predominant affection of liver and pancreas. In Russia, the main centers of helminthiasis are Ob-Irtysh basin, as well as the basins of the Volga and Kama rivers.

Infection occurs through the consumption of raw, insufficiently cooked or salted fish.

Clinical manifestations of opistorchosis are characterized by considerable diversity. It depends on the individual characteristics of the organism, as well as the intensity and duration of infection. The number of parasitic worms can vary greatly: from single parasites to several tens and even hundreds. Repeated consumption of contaminated fish leads to an increase in infestation and a worsening of the clinical manifestations. Clinically, the disease may be accompanied by fever in patients, urticaria, skin itching, muscle and joint pain. Patients may have subcostal pain, a feeling of heaviness in the stomach, and nausea.


The main causative agent of paragonismosis in humans is the lung sucker.

In the Russian Federation, the lungworm lives in the Primorskii and Khabarovsk Territories and the Amur Region.

The pathogen enters the human intestine during the consumption of crustaceans inhabiting areas with a nidus of the disease and migrates through the body: it penetrates through the intestinal wall into the abdominal cavity, and then enters the pleural cavity through the diaphragm and then into lung tissue. Sawfly larvae may also penetrate into other organs and tissues. Especially dangerous is the localization of the parasite in the brain. The extrapulmonary localization of the parasite occurs in one third of infected persons and is often the cause of death.

At the early stage of the disease, when the lungworm only migrates through the body, the disease is virtually asymptomatic. Sometimes there may be minor allergic reactions, skin itching, less often – abdominal pain, jaundice. As soon as the parasite reaches the place of final localization, patients have pronounced symptoms of lung damage: constant cough with profuse sputum, severe pain in the chest area. During the disease, various complications may arise, such as pneumothorax – penetration of air into the pleural cavity. Very often, patients develop pneumonia or pleurisy (inflammation of the pleural cavity).


Tapeworms (cestodes) are a group of parasitic worms that are ribbon-shaped and consist of a varying number of anatomically isolated segments, the proglottids. The worms vary in size from a few millimeters to 10-15 meters and more. At the front end of the worm there is a head, which is the organ of fixation of the parasite to the human intestinal mucosa. Helminth fixed to the intestinal wall with different devices – rounded or slit-shaped suction cups, hooks.


The causative agent of diphyllobotriosis is the broad lenticera, which lives in the human intestine.

Foci of the disease are geographically associated with freshwater bodies and concentrated in the basins of eastern and northern rivers – the Ob, Irtysh, Lena, Yenisei, Amur, Svir, Pechora, Neva, Volga – Kamsky basin.

Lenticum broad – reach a length of 12-15 meters or more, and the number of segments – several thousand.

Infection occurs when using insufficiently heat-treated, freshly frozen, poorly salted, poorly dried and cured fish, raw minced fish, and the use of freshly salted fish roe. The clinical picture is due to the mechanical action of the helminth on the intestinal mucosa and its absorption of nutrients. Patients with diphyllobotriosis complain of pain and rumbling in the stomach, nausea, vomiting. Often there is a disorder of the stool. If several worms are parasitized simultaneously, intestinal obstruction may occur.

Lenticum adsorbs vitamin B12 on its surface, which leads to disruption of red blood cell formation in patients and the emergence of anemia. Patients experience pale skin, weakness, and malaise.



BIFIDUMBACTERIN FORTE - 1 capsule contains: bifidobacteria
BIFIDUMBACTERIN FORTE – 1 capsule contains: bifidobacteria

BIFIDUMBACTERIN FORTE – 1 capsule contains: bifidobacteria, adsorbed on activated carbon – not less than 50 million colony forming units (CFU) ;.
Lactose monohydrate – 0.20 g
Hard gelatine capsule, white capsule body, the capsule cap blue. The contents of capsules Powder from light gray to dark gray with carbon black particles and possible splashes of beige color with a faint smell of fermented milk.
Product form:
10, 18 or 30 capsules of 5 doses packed in jars of a polymeric material. Bank placed together with instructions for use in a pile of cardboard.
Congenital lactase deficiency. Malabsorption of glucose-galactose.
Intestinal dysbacterioses of various etiology (including caused by the intake of antibiotics, antimicrobials, glucocorticoid hormones, drugs that have ulcerogenic action on the gastrointestinal tract (in t. H. NSAIDs)), diarrhea in patients with long-term treatment with antibiotics, acute intestinal infection established (shigellosis, salmonellosis, staphylococcal enterocolitis, rotavirus infection) and of unknown etiology, foodborne diseases.
In the combined therapy of diseases involving intestinal dysbiosis: chronic disease with lesions of the gastrointestinal tract (stomach and duodenal ulcer, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, liver and biliary tract, chronic constipation, malabsorption syndrome), allergic diseases, pneumonia, acute and chronic bronchitis, acute respiratory viral infections, inflammatory diseases of the urogenital tract, in surgical patients during preoperative Preparing and after surgery on the gut, liver, pancreas, intestine microbiocenosis for correction and prevention of inflammatory diseases.
The drug is used to prevent: nosocomial infections in hospitals and clinics, disbacterioses SARS in sickly children and adults.
Interaction with other drugs
In simultaneous reception Bifidumbacterin forte® with vitamins (especially B) effect of the drug is enhanced. When antibiotics recommended interval between the reception and the antibiotic drug Bifidumbacterin forte® is 3 – 4 hr.

The action of the drug due to high concentration of particles adsorbed on activated charcoal bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum), which are antagonists of a wide spectrum of pathogens (shigella, salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and others.) And conditionally pathogenic microorganisms (proteus, klebsiella and others.). Microcolonies sorbed bifidobacteria provide rapid restoration of the normal microflora, which, being naturally biosorbents, accumulates in a large amount falling outside or generated in an organism toxic substances. Sorbed bifidobacteria activates the regenerative processes in the mucosal membrane digestion, the synthesis of vitamins and amino acids, strengthens the immune defense of the body.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding
The drug is approved for use in women during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Special reception conditions there.
Conditions of supply of pharmacies
Available without prescription.
side effects
Not installed.
special instructions
The drug does not affect the ability to drive vehicles, machinery.
Storage conditions
Store at 2 to 10 ° C.
Dosing and Administration
The drug is used for children from birth (including premature), adults of all ages.
Depending on the severity of diseases Bifidumbacterin forte® used in ordinary or increased doses.
Bifidumbacterin forte® for therapeutic purposes in normal doses: children up to 1 year 1 capsule 2-3 times a day for children 1 year and older 1 capsule 3-4 times a day, adults take 2 capsules 2-3 times a day .
treatment of acute intestinal infections and food poisoning 5-7 days in other diseases 15-21 days (depends on the nature and severity of the disease). If necessary, treatment can be repeated 2-3 times, each course is one month after the end of the previous course of treatment.
Patients with surgical pathology – for 3-5 days before surgery and for 10-15 days after surgery: children up to 1 year, 1 capsule 3 times a day; children 1 year and older 1 capsule 3-4 times a day; adult to 2 capsules 3 times a day.
Bifidumbacterin forte® for therapeutic purposes in increased doses used in children 1 year and adults.
In acute intestinal infection and acute respiratory viral infection used from the first day of the disease: children 3-5 capsules every 2 hours up to 6 times a day, adults 10 capsules 3 times a day.
Course of treatment 1-3 days, depending on the severity of the condition.
In chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: children 5 capsules 1-3 times a day, adults 10 capsules 1-3 times a day.
The course of treatment 10-14 days.
Patients with diabetes should be aware that in the 10 capsules of the drug contained 0.17 XE.
With prophylactic purposes for children up to 1 year, 1 capsule 1 time per day. Another age categories 1-2 capsules 1-2 times per day.
For the prevention of dysbiosis in often ill SARS children and adults, drug use 10-15 days, 2-3 times a year. For the prevention of nosocomial infections in hospitals and clinics, drug use 5-10 days.
Bifidumbacterin forte® taken orally at mealtimes, if necessary, regardless of food intake, drinking water or fermented milk product. Children and patients who can not swallow a whole capsule, it opened. The contents of the capsule is mixed with the liquid food, preferably yogurt product or a small amount of boiled water at room temperature to obtain a slurry with particles of a black color of the sorbent. The resulting slurry (suspension) should be drunk without achieving complete dissolution. Newborns and infants at the contents of the capsules can be mixed with breast milk or a mixture of artificial feeding.
Appearance may differ from that depicted in the picture. There are contraindications. You need to read the manual or consult with a specialist

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Ways of diagnosing Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is the name of a slowly developing pathology of the central nervous system. The main symptoms of the disease include motor disorders, muscle stiffness (increased tone), tremor at rest. Carriers of the pathology experience not only vegetative, but also affective disorders. Neurologists diagnose true parkinsonism – Parkinson’s disease – and parkinsonism syndrome in patients. The latter becomes a complication of other neurological diseases: brain malignancies, strokes, encephalitis, etc.

Parkinson’s disease diagnoses

For the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease are used in several ways:

  • Visual examination.
  • Functional diagnostics: the method of clinico – accelerometric differential diagnostics of tremor (tremor), ultrasonic transcranial sonography (TX), tomography.
  • Laboratory tests (blood, urine).

A number of these methods of diagnostics are basic, priority, a number – auxiliary specifying.

Primarily, a patient with Parkinson’s disease suspicion is shown visual examination by a neurologist, laboratory tests, clinico-accelerometric differential diagnostics of tremor and ultrasonic transcranial sonography.

Visual examination

Ways of diagnosing Parkinson's disease

During the visual examination, the character of the shaking fingers is necessarily studied. If this is really Parkinson’s disease, then most often triggered by the rule of “rolling pills”: the patient feels that the fingers are not just shaking, and between them rolls a certain object like a pill. In addition, the tremor is asymmetrical. It is more pronounced on one hand and less pronounced on the other. Very often at the initial stage by the nature of tremor can be determined: it is necessary to continue to diagnose Parkinson’s disease, or the patient – Wilson-Konovalov disease, accompanied by a metabolic disorder. A detailed gait analysis is also performed. The doctor asks the patient to walk around the office and observe the speed. In the risk group – patients who have a clear acceleration when moving forward. Thus, patients unwittingly try to compensate for the difficulties in maintaining balance.

Functional diagnostics

Ways of diagnosing Parkinson's disease

The most effective are ultrasonic transcranial sonography and clinical-accelerometric differential diagnostics. They help not only to confirm or deny the presence of the disease, but also to choose the right treatment, including the dosage. Ultrasonic transcranial sonography helps to determine what area of the nerve cells of the brain is affected and even the predisposition to Parkinson’s disease, and accelerometric differential diagnosis is informative for the analysis of the dynamics of tremor. Tomography in the diagnosis is auxiliary. It is shown not to reveal the nature of Parkinson’s disease, but to distinguish it from other pathologies and (or) to detect neoplasms and degenerative pathologies in the patient.

Electroencephalography, Doppler, ultrasound examination of brachycephalous arteries may also be prescribed according to indications. The data obtained from these examinations are also clarifying.

Reasons for Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease (fluttering paralysis) – degenerative neurological pathology.

The nature of the disease is associated with several factors:

  • Malfunctions within nerve cells: for example, due to injury or complications after infectious diseases of the brain.
  • Disorders in the body against the background of interaction with harmful chemicals.
  • Mutations in genes.
  • With the accumulation of special presynaptic proteins in nerve cells – alpha-sinucleins.

Alpha-sinuclein proteins is produced by the nervous system itself. With a large accumulation, they become toxic and poison the brain. Human nerve cells begin to die, and the production of such an extremely important hormone as dopamine is significantly impaired. But it depends on the dopamine whether the person is able to learn, whether he can easily remember information and even hold a pen or pencil. The quality of sleep, the ability to concentrate, and the coordination of movements all depend on the same hormone. If dopamine in the body becomes scarce, the processes associated with thinking and motor activity are significantly slowed down.

Reasons for Parkinson's disease

Nowadays Parkinson’s disease is diagnosed more often than 50 years ago. But this is not due to the fact that the disease is progressing, but to the fact that people are more likely to get it after 50-60 years, and even more often 70-80 years. As life expectancy has increased over the last half a century, the number of people diagnosed with this disease has also increased. At present, about 1% of the world population suffers from Parkinson’s disease. But the disease of the elderly can not be called a pathology. People under the age of 50 may also suffer from Parkinson’s disease. As a percentage – the number of people sick is many times less, but people in the 20-40 years may also suffer from this disease. Also it is impossible to assert that Parkinson’s disease is a professional disease of people of certain professions. But the practice shows: there are areas in which you can often meet people with Parkinson’s disease. These are mining in mines and work with pesticides, agrochemicals.


Reasons for Parkinson's disease

The most common cause of the pathology is heredity. Cell death is associated with the activation of apotosis, a mechanism that is programmed genetically. 20% of patients with Parkinson’s disease have or had relatives who are familiar with this disease. In the risk group – persons with changes in one of the genes (PARK2 gene). The essential problem is that the disease transmission through the genes is autosomal recessive, which means that it usually manifests not directly from parents to children, but through a generation or even several generations. And many people are not aware of the danger, but if there was a person who suffered from this disease, there should be regular examinations of the organism in the neurological “slice”: especially after 50 years.

But besides the hereditary factor, there are other provocateurs of the disease:

  • Taking a number of medicines. Practice shows that the disease may be caused by antidepressants of neuroleptics (methoklopramid), reserve, calcium antagonists (diltiazem), and lithium preparations. That is why these drugs are prescription ones and their administration requires strict control by a doctor. However, if the drugs were really dangerous, of course, no one would prescribe them. Everything is very individual.
  • All kinds of injuries (especially dangerous concussions).
  • Encephalitis – no matter what nature they have – viral or bacterial. In both cases there is a high risk of damage to the structure of vegetative ganglia – clusters of multipolar nerve cells.
  • Other diseases. The provocateurs may be malignant formations, endocrine pathologies, atherosclerosis.

Parkinson’s disease symptoms

Parkinson’s disease (fluttering paralysis) – degenerative neurological pathology. Nowadays Parkinson’s disease is diagnosed more often than 50 years ago. But this is due not to the fact that the disease is progressing, but to the fact that people are more likely to get it after 50-60 years, and even more often 70-80 years. As life expectancy has increased over the last half a century, the number of people diagnosed with this disease has also increased. At present, about 1% of the world population suffers from Parkinson’s disease.


Parkinson's disease symptoms

Parkinson’s disease can begin with a variety of symptoms. At the same time, symptoms may be associated with disorders of motor, intellectual activity, and functions that, at first glance, are not related to the nervous system, but relate to the digestive tract and even the nose. What symptoms most often worry Parkinson’s disease sufferers?

  • Tremor at rest (in a calm state – sitting, lying down, a person starts to shiver, the shiver goes away). Especially often, the problem starts with the tremor of the hands and the head.
  • Leg stiffness. A person can’t walk quickly – but not because he has shortness of breath (as it happens with diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems), it is difficult for him to control the work of his muscles. In this case, you can often hear “legs do not obey”.
  • Problems with keeping the balance.
  • Violations of blood circulation.
  • Chronic constipation.
  • Violations of the so-called fast sleep phase: at the moment of falling asleep, a person behaves not just restlessly, but actively – up to the point that causes self-injuries. However, after waking up, a person can not remember about it.
  • Loss of sense of smell.

But despite the general symptoms, the development of the disease in young and old, men and women have some differences. And the differences concern both the progression of the disease, and the very first symptoms. Let us consider these differences in detail.

Symptoms of the disease in young men and women

If Parkinson’s disease began to develop at the age of 20-40 years, its progression (in the absence of treatment) – very rapid.
The disease begins in young people, as a rule, with muscle problems. The first signs of pathology in young people are most often involuntary muscle contractions in the shoulders and feet. At first, they can be described simply as unpleasant, and then – as very painful feelings. And sometimes, the patient does not understand that it is the muscles that contract: it seems to him that the joints hurt. He begins to use ointments for arthritis, but the result is not just no, it is the opposite of what he wants: the pain increases. That is why, if there are such signs, it is important to see a doctor immediately.

Symptoms of disease in the elderly

Parkinson's disease symptoms

In older people, the disease at the beginning of the disease is slower. If the disease develops after 60 years, sometimes 10 years pass from the first symptoms to the diagnosis. And this is a great danger. After all, the earlier to identify the disease and begin treatment, the higher the chances that it will be possible to take measures that will prevent a person from losing capacity. Most often, the disease in old age begins with changes in the gait. A person begins to accelerate and at the same time shorten the steps. Often, this gait is called a seed gait. Another feature of Parkinson’s disease in older people is the “disguise” of the disease under other diseases: for example, pathologies of the cardiovascular system. But there are differences. For example, if we are talking about problems with blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease sufferers fall more often only when a person stands, walks, and in a state of rest the pressure stabilizes.

Symptoms of the disease in women

Women more often than men already at the initial stage of the disease show the following signs: neck muscles tension, which at first is difficult (without special examination) to distinguish from the signs of osteochondrosis and periarthritis; decreased intelligence; strong emotional depression; suicidal thoughts (especially in menopause); expressive painful manifestations, starting from the shoulder and neck area, etc., etc.

Symptoms of disease in men

Many men have Parkinson’s disease from the beginning accompanied by problems with potency. This is due to the fact that an erection is in the direct control of the autonomic system, one of the parts of the nervous system. One more characteristic feature is the difficulty of controlling the hands while walking. If a healthy person, while walking, instinctively flexes his hands in his elbows, often waving his hands (which is important for effective movement and energy conservation), then in case of Parkinson’s disease, a lot of effort is required to perform these actions. As in women, men suffering from Parkinson’s disease have a worse emotional background. But instead of oppression, men become overly aggressive and angry.

Dr. Denis Slinkin

Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease (also parkinsonism, fluttering paralysis) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by shivering limbs and head (tremor), slow motion and impoverished mimics (hypokinesia), general stiffness of the body (rigidity).

According to extant sources, Parkinson’s disease was known in ancient times. The full scientific description was first provided by the English physician James Parkinson in 1817, whose name was given to the disease, according to Dr. Denis Slinkin.

Dr. Denis Slinkin claims that shaking first appears on the right side of the body and gradually switches to the left side. Tremor in Parkinson’s disease is quite specific: finger movements resemble “rolling balls” or “coin count”.

Dr. Denis Slinkin

It is especially noticeable when the patient is awake, and can disappear in his sleep. As Parkinson’s disease progresses, people suffering from Parkinson’s disease acquire a specific ‘petitioner’ pose: the head is bent down, the arms are bent in the elbows and away from the body, the legs are bent in the knees, and the torso is tilted slightly forward. The patients are characterized by a shuffling gait, perhaps a long stomping in place before moving forward.

Parkinsonism develops due to mass neuronal death in “black matter”, which is in the middle brain. 

These cells produce the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is vital for intercellular communication. Lack of dopamine causes an imbalance between different brain systems. 

According to the data available to date, in 20% of cases Parkinson’s disease is due to genetic predisposition, the remaining 80% is due to environmental factors. Parkinsonism can be triggered by neurotoxins used in agriculture, heavy metals (manganese, lead, iron) or gases (carbon monoxide), says Dr. Denis Slinkin.